Scanners: Zirkonzahn s600, Dental Wings, 3Shape D900, MEDIT Identica Blue

ZirkonZahn S600 Scanner

DWOS Scanner

3Shape D900 Scanner

MEDIT Identica Blue Scanner

MILLING MACHINES: Zirkonzahn m5, CORiTEC 750i

Zirkonzahn m5 is a 5-axis dental milling machine designed for dry machining of materials used in prosthetics, especially zirconium oxide. The machine is suitable for the manufacture of crowns and bridges and much more complex geometries such as prosthetic abutments. The Zirkonzahn can be characterised as a dynamic, precise and extremely efficient multitasking system with an emphasis on precision and quality in the processing of zirconium as well as other prosthetic materials.

CORiTEC 750i is an unrivalled 5-axis dental milling machine for wet or dry machining of all major prosthetic materials, particularly metal, which owes its exceptional performance to the industrial purpose of its predecessor. The 750i offers the highest standards of precision and dynamics thanks to the granite base for all axes and the use of the latest generation of linear motor drives. The machine is designed for the manufacture of crowns and bridges and much more complex geometrical shapes such as prosthetic abutments or tooth models. CORiTEC 750i can be characterised as a dynamic, precise and extremely efficient multi-purpose production system for medium and large prosthetic laboratories with an emphasis on precision and quality in the machining of metal and other prosthetic materials.

Dental Lab is one of the few laboratories to have received the manufacturer’s certificate for certified ZirkonZahn Laboratories


DMLS technology – creating complex shapes by selective melting of metal powders

DMLS, or Direct Metal Laser Sintering, is a 3D metal printing technology and has been developed by EOS for over 20 years. Initially, the idea of prototyping metal parts using the DMLS method, has evolved into a mature manufacturing technology, offering exceptional design freedom for designers.

Repeatable strength parameters of created elements and the number of industrial and medical production implementations are the elements that distinguish the DMLS method from similar solutions of the SLM or LC type. The idea of this technology is to build complicated shapes, impossible to create with casting methods, from materials difficult to process.

The most popular materials used in the DMLS method are titanium alloys, tool steels, cobalt and chromium superalloys, heat-resistant nickel alloys, aluminium alloy and surgical stainless steels. Metals such as tungsten, copper, gold and other precious metals are also being implemented. The main industries using DMLS technology to produce final parts are mainly aerospace, automotive, dentistry, implantology and the tooling industry of plastics processing and foundry.

Advantages of DMLS technology

  • designing complex geometries with lattice structures to relieve stress on parts in the aerospace industry
  • building complex cooling channels following the shape of the part in the mould inserts (conformal cooling), which significantly reduces the cycle time and improves the quality of plastic parts
  • construction of dental crowns and bridges in biocompatible certified CoCrMo alloy
  • creation of integrated parts from difficult-to-process materials, e.g. nickel alloys or tungsten, in order to reduce the number of components in a given component
  • manufacture of titanium bone implants with truss structures to facilitate osteointegration

How DMLS machines work

The operation of DMLS machines is based on depositing layers of precisely composed metal powder by means of a blade on the working platform, and then on selective melting of subsequent layers of the manufactured element by means of a laser beam operating in near infrared (wavelength of about 1064nm). The 3D printing process takes place in a protective atmosphere, mainly argon or nitrogen, depending on the reactivity class of the alloy used. For example, aluminium alloys and titanium are processed in argon shielding, while less reactive tool steels and cobalt and chromium alloys are processed in nitrogen atmosphere.

A key aspect of the 3D printing process is the need for continuous cleaning of the shielding gas from impurities created during remelting. These contaminants are often porous and can contain residual amounts of metal oxides and trapped gas bubbles. If the contaminant falls onto the remelted surface and is then covered by another layer of powder, it can be fused into the material structure, causing inclusions of a different density to the alloy material. The quality of layered laser remelting can therefore be estimated mainly by the number of such defects on the cross-sectional surface of the material formed. If the filtration system, the laser exposure profile and the shielding gas flow over the powder surface are not optimised, a large number of defects in the material structure can result in significant weakening. In applications such as medical, moulding or aerospace, this type of structural weakening cannot occur.

In the general principle of operation, DMLS, SLM (Selective Laser Melting) or LC (Laser Cusing) are similar. The above-mentioned variety of technology names results from the registration of names as trademarks. Also taking patent limitations into account, each manufacturer of SLM or LC machines pays a patent fee to EOS (as the original creator of this method) while using several solutions of their own, which distinguish one technology option from another. An example is the use of a powder spreading rubber in SLM machines in exchange for a steel or ceramic blade used in DMLS technology. In Polish technical nomenclature, the word “sintering” in the name of DMLS is a misleading phrase, because in reality, the laser completely melts the powdered metal, while the effect of heat is visible deep inside the workpiece, even up to several layers back.

Why choose EOS DMLS machines

EOS is a company which sets the course for the development of laser melting of metal powders and plastics in terms of the quality offered and the number of systems installed, industrial implementations and organisational structure. Since 1994, DMLS technology has evolved from rapid prototyping to production technology for highly demanding components. Through many years of collaboration between the EOS brand and its key customers in many industries, DMLS technology is the most widely implemented solution for the production of metal parts by means of 3D printing.

The M280 and M290 machines are used to produce components for items such as aircraft engines from GE and UTC. In addition, more aerospace companies such as MTU and RolsRoyce are preparing for new implementations involving DMLS technology. The M270 machine has been used for many years to produce dental crowns and bridges from CoCrMo alloy instead of milling and casting. The M270, M280 and M290 build titanium implants and implants designed for individual patients. The tooling industry manufactures production conformal-cooled inserts for injection moulds and pressure casting moulds, which reduce injection cycle times and improve the quality of the parts created.


EOS CobaltChrome SP2 material – corrosion, oxidation and heat resistance

EOS CobaltChrome SP2 is a DMLS/SLM processed material used to create cobalt-chromium-molybdenum superalloy parts. This material has high resistance to oxidation, corrosion and extreme temperatures, and has excellent mechanical properties. EOS CobaltChrome SP2 is often used among biomedical solutions, such as dental or medical implants. The material is also used for structural applications operating in high temperature environments, such as turbine blades for high temperature gas turbine components and jet engines. Printed parts can be processed, for example by polishing, welding or varnishing.

Properties of EOS CobaltChrome SP2:

  • low nickel content (less than 0,1%)
  • excellent corrosion and heat resistance
  • improvement of mechanical properties with temperature increase up to 500-600°C
  • meets high chemical and mechanical requirements and is certified to ISO 5832-4 for ASTM F75 cast CoCrMo implant alloys

EOS CobaltChrome SP2 material has the following applications:

  • finished products
  • functional prototypes of metal parts
  • small production runs
  • mechanical components working in difficult conditions (such as high temperature)
  • aerospace industry
  • energy industry
  • biomedical applications

Technical parameters:

Material geometry data for DMLS/SLM/LaserCusing* on EOS M100

Minimum wall thickness – approx. 0.3 mm

Surface roughness – Ra 4 – 10 μm, Rz 20 – 40 μm

Powder sintering efficiency – 7.4 mm3/s (26.6 cm3/h)

Physical and chemical properties of DMLS/SLM/LaserCusing* models on EOS M100

Material composition for DMLS/SLM/LaserCusing*

Co (60-65%)

Cr (26-30%)

Mo (5-7%)

Si (< 1.0%)

Mn (< 1.0%)

Fe (< 0.75%)

C (< 0.16%)

Ni (< 0.10%)

Relative density – approximately 100%

Density – 8.3 g/cm3

Mechanical properties of DMLS/SLM/LaserCusing* models on EOS M100 machine [after printing/heat treatment]

Tensile strength

– horizontal direction (XY) – 1350 ± 100 MPa/1100 ± 100 MPA

– vertical direction (Z) – 1200 ± 150 MPa/1100 ± 100 MPa

Yield strength

– horizontal direction (XY) – 1060 ± 100 MPa/600 ± 50 MPa

– vertical direction (Z) – 800 ± 100 MPa/600 ± 50 MPa

Elongation at break

– horizontal (XY) – 11 ± 3%/min. 20%

– vertical direction (Z) – 24 ± 4%/Min. 20%

Young’s modulus

– horizontal direction (XY) – 200 ± 20 GPa/200 ± 20 GPa

– vertical direction (Z) – 190 ± 20 GPa/200 ± 20 GPa

Hardness – 35 ± 45 HBW/35 ± 45 HBW

*DMLS (Direct Metal Laser Sintering) is a registered trademark of the German company EOS (Electro Optical Systems). SLM (Selective Laser Melting) is a registered trademark of MCP Hek, which is currently used by SLM Solutions, MTT and Renishaw, Realizer. Laser Cusing, on the other hand, is a proprietary technology name owned by Concept Laser, a company within the Hofmann Innovation Group. EOS and MCP Hek used the SLM name in parallel at the start of the technology’s development. However, MCP was the first to claim it, which meant that EOS had to create its own name – DMLS. All of these names refer to the technology of selectively sintering and melting powdered metals by means of a laser, applied in layers, until a finished fully durable part is obtained.


EOS M100 Metal 3D Printer – compact DMLS/SLM technology

The EOS M100 printer provides industrial DMLS/SLM technology in a compact form factor for laboratories and R&D departments. It is the smallest 3D metal printing system that is ideal for the production of individual products and small production runs of small parts. The modular design of the process chamber and powder feeding allows for easy and fast operation, making it user-friendly. The system uses a proven fibre laser (200W), which ensures process stability and the construction of high-quality parts.

The small working chamber (diameter 100 mm, height 95 mm), the efficient powder distribution system during 3D printing and the high process parameters enable fast and economical small batch production. In addition, the small diameter laser spot and high resolution allow the construction of geometrically complex shapes. Thanks to the combination of a 200W fibre ytterbium laser and a new generation of laser exposure parameters and a print parameter stabilisation system, it provides processing of the following materials:

  • Stainless steel – 316L (1.4404)
  • Titanium alloy – Ti64 (TiAl6V4)
  • Chrome-cobalt superalloys – CoCrMo SP2

Prints in DMLS/SLM technology

3D systems working with DMLS/SLM technology are:

EOS M100 3D printer for metal

EOS M290 3D Printer for Metal

EOS M400 Metal 3D Printer

The information about technology, materials and 3D printers is taken from the website of BiBusMenos Sp. z o.o. – an authorised representative of EOS.